JANUARY 1 - NEW YEAR
January (in Latin, Ianuarius) is named after Janus, the god of beginnings and transitions in Roman mythology. It is the first month of the year in the Gregorian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was adopted in 1582.. In Russia, according to the decree of Peter I, it was transferred to the Julian calendar. According to this decree, January 1, the day of Jesus' birth, was accepted as the beginning of the year, and the 18th century began on January 1, 1701. In 1918, the Gregorian calendar was adopted by a decree signed by the head of the government of Soviet Russia VI Lenin. Thus, the difference between the Gregorian and Julian calendars, which was equal to 13 days in the twentieth century, was eliminated. The day after January 31, 1918 was considered to be February 13. In the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Gregorian calendar is still used to calculate the years. Accordingly, January 1 is marked as a day off. Since 2006, January 1 and 2 have been public holidays and non-working days. Note: According to the rules in force since 2006, if the holiday coincides with a day off, the next day is not considered a working day.
MARCH 8 INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S DAY
The 8th of March is the international day of solidarity of women in the struggle for the equality of rights. After the Socialist Party of America organized a Women's Day in New York City on February 28, 1909, German delegates Clara Zetkin, Käte Duncker and others proposed at the 1910 International Socialist Woman's Conference that "a special Women's Day" be organized annually.. The following year on March 19, 1911, IWD (international women's day) was marked for the first time, by over a million people in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland. In 1913, Russian women observed their first International Women's Day on the last Saturday in February (by the Julian calendar then used in Russia). And in Azerbaijan, it was first celebrated in 1917. Until 1914, this holiday was celebrated on different days. The tradition of celebrating International Women's Day on March 8 dates back to the time when women from Austria, Hungary, Russia, the United States and other countries agreed to celebrate the day. Since then, March 8 has been celebrated in all countries as a day of solidarity in the struggle for peace. In 1965, Azerbaijan declared March 8 a non-working holiday in the USSR. After Azerbaijan gained independence, March 8 retained its holiday status. Note: According to the rules in force since 2006, if the holiday coincides with a day off, the next day is not considered a working day.
MAY 9 - VICTORY DAY ON FASCISM
World War II (1939-1945) was remembered as a period of terrible, tragic disasters for mankind. During the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945), the people of Azerbaijan showed great heroism and bravery both on the front and in the rear. In a short period of time, 87 fighter battalions and 1,124 self-defense units were established in the country. In 1941-1945, more than 600,000 brave sons and daughters of Azerbaijan were sent to the front. Azerbaijani divisions passed a glorious battle route from the Caucasus to Berlin. About 130 of our compatriots were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, 30 were awarded all three degrees of the Order of Glory. 170,000 soldiers and officers from Azerbaijan were awarded various orders and medals of the USSR. Twice Hero of the Soviet Union Hazi Aslanov, Heroes of the Soviet Union Israfil Mammadov, Aslan Vazirov, Adil Guliyev, Ziya Bunyadov, Garay Asadov, Malik Maharramov, Mehdi Huseynzade, Generals Mahmud Abilov, Akim Abbasov, Tarlan Aliyarbeyov, Hajibaba Zeynalov and many others showed their bravery. wrote new pages in the history of our people.
Great work was being done in the republic in order to direct the economy to the service of the front. In a short time, Baku became an armory for the fighting army. Despite the great difficulties, our oil workers showed heroism and self-sacrifice, provided the front and industry with fuel. Under the leadership of Academician Yusif Mammadaliyev, a new technology for the production of aviation gasoline was created. Thanks to the selfless work of our oil workers, a record for oil production was achieved in the history of Azerbaijan, and in 1941, 23.5 million tons of "black gold" were extracted. This accounted for 71.4% of all oil produced in the USSR. In general, during the war, Azerbaijani oil workers supplied the country with 75 million tons of oil, 22 million tons of gasoline and other oil products. It is safe to say that Baku oil was one of the main factors in the victory over fascism. Suffice it to say that four out of every five planes, four out of every five tanks, Four out of five cars ran on fuel sent from Baku. The Great Patriotic War demonstrated the mass heroism and self-sacrifice of the Azerbaijani people.
MAY 28 - REPUBLIC DAY
The twentieth century has gone down in history not only as a century of science and technology, but also as a century of national revival, the collapse of colonial empires, and the emergence of nation-states. As a result of the February Revolution in Russia in 1917, the tsarist dictatorship was overthrown. The national movement of the peoples oppressed by tsarism began in the country. On May 28, 1918, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918-1920) - the first secular democratic state in the Muslim East was established. This republic has left its mark on the historical memory of our nation as the first experience of Azerbaijani statehood. Since 1990, Republic Day - the day of restoration of state independence - has been celebrated as a national holiday. Note: According to the rules in force since 2006, if the holiday coincides with a day off, the next day is not considered a working day.
JUNE 15 - NATIONAL SALVATION DAY OF THE PEOPLE OF AZERBAIJAN
In October 1991, Azerbaijan gained independence. However, the first years of independence were marked by a gap in political power and a gap in the foundations of the state, all institutions of the state, including the army and state security agencies. Armenia's intentional annexation aggravated the situation in the republic. In the summer of 1993, there was a real threat of civil war in Azerbaijan. During this difficult period of the country, Heydar Aliyev returned to power. On June 15, 1993, Heydar Aliyev was elected chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Thus, June 15 entered our history as the Day of National Salvation. In June 1997, the Milli Majlis, in agreement with public opinion, declared the day a holiday.
JUNE 26 - DAY OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN
On October 9, 1991, the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Azerbaijan adopted a law on the establishment of the army. According to the Decree of the President of Azerbaijan dated May 22, 1998, June 26 was declared the Armed Forces Day. Note: According to the rules in force since 2006, if the holiday coincides with a day off, the next day is not considered a working day.
OCTOBER 18 - STATE INDEPENDENCE DAY
On August 30, 1991, at the extraordinary session of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Declaration of State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan was adopted. At the historical session of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Azerbaijan held on October 18, 1991, the Constitutional Act "On State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan" was unanimously adopted. On December 29, 1991, a nationwide referendum was held in the Republic of Azerbaijan. There was only one question in the referendum ballots: "Do you support the Constitutional Act" On State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan?" The people of Azerbaijan voted in favor of state independence. In May 1992, the Milli Majlis (Parliament) approved the National Anthem of the Republic of Azerbaijan (music by Uzeyir Hajibeyov, lyrics by Ahmad Javad), and later the State Emblem with the State Flag and an octagonal star with flaming tongues.
NOVEMBER 9 - STATE FLAG DAY OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN
The state flag of Azerbaijan was first adopted as a national flag with a decision of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan dated 9 November 1918, and it was used as a state symbol until April 1920.. During the Soviet period of our history, it was replaced by the flag of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. On November 17, 1988, while public and political processes occurred around Daghlyg Garabagh, the flag of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan was unofficially raised on today’s Azadlyg Square, in Baku, following the initiative of intelligentsia. Officially, this flag was hoisted on the territory of Azerbaijan on the basis of the decision of the Supreme Soviet of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic dated January 19, 1990 on the building of the Supreme Soviet of Nakhchivan. Although this decision was annulled by the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR eight days later, on November 17, 1990, at the session of the Supreme Assembly of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic chaired by national leader Heydar Aliyev, the flag of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was adopted as the state flag of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. On February 5, 1991, at the request of the Azerbaijani public, the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Azerbaijan adopted the Law on the State Flag and gave the tricolor the status of the state flag of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The Republic of Azerbaijan, which restored its state independence by the relevant Constitutional Act on October 18, 1991, adopted its state symbols, including the state flag, while declaring itself the successor of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
NOVEMBER 12 - CONSTITUTION DAY
The Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan adopted in 1995 is the fourth Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan and reflects its new historical modification. The history of the construction of the Constitution in the Republic of Azerbaijan coincides mainly with the state in which it was a part of the USSR. The first Constitution of Azerbaijan was adopted on May 19, 1921 at the First All-Azerbaijani Congress of Soviets. On March 14, 1925, at the IV All-Azerbaijan Congress of Soviets, a new version of the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan, corresponding to the 1924 Constitution of the USSR, was adopted. On April 21, 1978, the new Constitution of the Azerbaijan SSR was adopted, reflecting the realities of a new stage in the country's history. After Azerbaijan gained independence, there was a need to draft a new Constitution. For this purpose, a special commission headed by President Heydar Aliyev was established. In a referendum held on November 12, 1995, this new Constitution was adopted in accordance with the will of the people. The 1995 Constitution laid the foundation for state building in the Republic of Azerbaijan. The text of the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan consists of 5 sections, 12 chapters and 158 articles. November 12 is celebrated as the Constitution Day of the Republic of Azerbaijan in our country.
NOVEMBER 17 - NATIONAL REVIVAL DAY
In the first days of 1988, Armenia's open aggression against Azerbaijan began. Taking advantage of the negligence of the Soviet leadership, the Armenian authorities effectively sanctioned the expulsion of more than 200,000 Azerbaijanis from their permanent residences. As a sign of protest against the actions of the Armenian leadership and the Kremlin, on November 17, 1988, an indefinite rally of the Azerbaijani public began in the main square of Baku - Freedom Square. Since 1992, November 17 has been celebrated as National Revival Day.
DECEMBER 31 - DAY OF SOLIDARITY OF WORLD AZERBAIJANS
Every year, December 31 is celebrated as the Day of National Solidarity of Azerbaijanis. Tens of millions of Azerbaijanis live in different countries of the world - Iran (South Azerbaijan), Turkey, Germany, France, Great Britain, the United States and the Middle East. The largest diaspora of Azerbaijanis is in Russia and covers 1.5-2 million people. After the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the social status of the diaspora changed, it strengthened its comprehensive activities for the benefit of the Azerbaijani people. In 1993, by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, December 31 was declared the Day of National Solidarity of Azerbaijanis.
Novruz holiday is celebrated in honor of the arrival of spring and marks the New Year. The first day of spring on the calendar indicates the end of the Sun's annual cycle. The historical roots of Novruz date back to very ancient times - to the time of the prophet Zoroaster. This means about 3700-5000 years. In ancient Babylon, this festival began on April 21 (March, April) and lasted for 12 days. Each of these 12 days had its own rituals and ceremonies. The oldest written monuments show that Novruz holiday was established in 505 BC. Islam has brought religious shades to the holiday of Novruz. However, great thinkers such as Firdovsi, Rudaki, Ibn Sina, Nizami, Sadi, and Hafiz argued that Novruz originated long before Islam. Examples of works dedicated to Novruz are Nizami's "Politics" and Omar Khayyam's "Novruzname."
Land of Fire Azerbaijan has a rich tradition of fire worship. In this sense, Novruz is a symbol of purification of the soul. On the eve of the last Wednesday before Novruz, bonfires are lit and everyone, regardless of age or gender, must jump over this blessed fire seven times. You have to jump over the same bonfire seven times or over each of the seven bonfires once. When performing this ritual, it is necessary to say, "Let my jaundice pass to you, and your redness to me." They never pour water on the Novruz bonfire. After the fire is extinguished, boys and girls collect the ashes and take them away from home. This means that all evil is mixed with that ash. Water purification is associated with the notion that water has a cleansing power. Jumping over the arch during the days of Novruz means washing away the sins committed last year. There is a custom: On the last night of the year, people sprinkle water on each other. According to popular belief, on the last Wednesday night, rivers and ditches stop, everyone and everything, even trees, bow to the water. Whoever drinks this water on New Year's Eve will not get sick.
The peak of Novruz is the transfer of power from the old year to the new. According to ancient traditions, cannons and rifles were fired in honor of Novruz at that time. N.Dubrovin wrote about it in the XIX century: "In Azerbaijan, the arrival of spring was announced in cities and villages by volleys fired from cannons." Adam Oleari, who took part in the celebrations in honor of Novruz in Azerbaijan, wrote: "The astrologer, using an astronomical device and a solar clock, determined the height of the Sun and said at the equinox:" A new year has come. " At that moment, cannons from the city towers opened fire, and music could be heard from the walls of the fortress. Thus began the Feast of Spring ”(1637). On Novruz, the table should contain seven dishes, the names of which begin with the letter "S", as well as sumac, vinegar, milk, malt, carrots and others. Mirrors and candles are placed on the table, and painted eggs are placed in front of the mirror. Each of these has a symbolic meaning: a candle is a fire, a light that protects people from the evil eye, and a mirror is a light. According to tradition, everyone should be at home on the first day of the holiday. People say: "If you are not at home on the first day of Novruz, you will miss home for seven years." In the past, on Novruz, the outer door of the house was usually not closed. On the first day of Novruz, the lights are on all night, because turning off the lights is a sign of misfortune. When villagers celebrate Novruz, they determine whether the new year will be dry, rainy, productive or scarce. According to tradition, the first day of Novruz is spring, the second day is summer, the third day is autumn and the fourth day is winter. If the weather is windless and clear on the first day, then the year will be productive. Novruz is a holiday that people love and give them a happy meal. Novruz is a holiday that reflects the traditional values of the Azerbaijani people. MOSLEM FESTIVAL OF SACRIFICE Eid al-Adha, a religious ceremony, is celebrated every year throughout the Muslim world. Sacrifice existed long before Islam. In the second year of the Hijri calendar, after the Prophet Muhammad's migration from Medina to Mecca, the practice of sacrificing in the Islamic world took on new meanings, such as helping the poor and orphans, and giving alms to make dreams come true. Sacrifice, a religious ritual, originated after a story about the Prophet Abraham. He dreamed that God commanded Abraham to sacrifice his son Ishmael to prove his faith. Abraham, a true believer, was ready to obey God's command, and Ishmael was ready to sacrifice. During the Feast of Sacrifice, every wealthy Muslim should sacrifice an animal and distribute its meat to the poor and orphans. Sacrifice aims to elevate a person to the heights of true faith. In this regard, the Qur'an states: “Their flesh and blood will not reach God. Only piety will reach him from you. (22:37) Eid al-Adha is celebrated for two days.
The holy month of Ramadan has been established for Muslims in the second year of the Hijri calendar (622 AD). The month of Ramadan encourages people to accept God's instructions with all their hearts and to go through physical and spiritual trials. Muslims fast this month. The history of fasting begins in the second year of the Hijri calendar. At that time, the Prophet Muhammad established the month of Ramadan for Muslims in Medina. Allah revealed the Qur'an to Muslims on one of the last ten nights of Ramadan. It is said that the incident took place on the night of the 23rd to the 24th or the 26th to the 27th of that month. That night is called Laylat al-Qadr, the Night of Power. The Qur'an says about this night: We sent it down on the Night of Power. How do you know what Laylat al-Qadr is? Laylat al-Qadr is better than a thousand months. On that night, the angels and the spirit descend by the permission of their Lord, according to every command. It is a security until dawn ”(97: 1-5). During the fast, it is not permissible to eat, smoke, perform marital duties or perform other activities during daylight hours. Children, pregnant women, those suffering from serious illness, warriors and travelers are exempt from fasting. Fasting begins as soon as the new moon appears and lasts for 29-30 days. The Qur'an states: “Eat and drink until the white thread becomes distinct from the black thread at dawn. Then continue fasting until nightfall ”(2: 187). Fasting existed before Islam. The Qur'an states: "Fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may fear Allah" (22: 183). The fast ends with Eid al-Fitr. On that day, all rich and wealthy Muslims are obliged to help poor Muslims.
Since 1993, Lent has been celebrated at the state level.
Ramadan is celebrated for 2 days